Package indicspecies provides functions to:

Package installation

Packageindicspecies can be found at CRAN package repository. In addition, the latest stable indicspecies R package can be installed from GitHub as follows:


Additionally, users can have help to run package functions directly as package vignettes, by forcing their inclusion in installation:

                        build_opts = c("--no-resave-data", "--no-manual"),
                        build_vignettes = TRUE)


Use strassoc() for assessing strength of associations and signassoc() to assess the statistical significance of the associations (De Cáceres & Legendre 2009). Much more complete functions are multipatt() (De Cáceres et al. 2010) and indicators() (De Cáceres et al. 2012).


  • De Cáceres, M., & Legendre, P. (2009). Associations between species and groups of sites: indices and statistical inference. Ecology, 90(12), 3566–3574.

  • De Cáceres, M., Legendre, P., & Moretti, M. (2010). Improving indicator species analysis by combining groups of sites. Oikos, 119(10), 1674–1684.

  • De Cáceres, M., Legendre, P., Wiser, S. K., & Brotons, L. (2012). Using species combinations in indicator value analyses. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 3, 973–982.

  • De Cáceres, M., Sol, D., Lapiedra, O., & Legendre, P. (2011). A framework for estimating niche metrics using the resemblance between qualitative resources. Oikos, 120(February), 1341–1350.